Here's one explanation of how the Fair Isaacs Corporation (FICO) does their numbering thing to give you a credit score (n.b.: this is not from them, they scrupulously avoid speaking about their proprietary system to outsiders). It's one guess of many in the open market:
- Past delinquency: People who have failed to make payments in the past tend to do the same in the future.
- The way credit has been used: Someone who is maxed out or close to the limit on a credit card is considered a greater risk than someone who doesn't look at the high credit line as a license to print money.
- The age of the credit file: Fair Isaac's model assumes people who have had credit for a long time are less risky.
- The number of times a person asks for credit: The system frowns upon those who have initiated several requests for credit cards, loans or other debt instruments over a short period.
- A customer's mix of credit: Someone with only a secured credit card is generally riskier than someone who has a combination of installment and revolving loans. (On installment loans, a person borrows money once and makes fixed payments until the balance is gone, while revolving borrowers make regular payments, each of which frees up more money to access.)"
What does this mean for a consumer in search of a loan?
"Mortgages: By Freddie Mac standards, borrowers with FICO scores above 660 are likely to have an "acceptable" credit reputation and their loan files need only a basic review. The credit risk is "uncertain" for those with scores between 620 and 660, with a thorough review of the borrower's entire credit history. A score below 620 indicates "high risk" with an unacceptable credit reputation that could make traditional financing difficult to obtain.
Credit cards: Credit card lenders place additional weight on credit card-related information, such as how many times a person missed revolving credit payments. And the systems evaluate a college student targeted for a starter card differently than a platinum-toting stockbroker with a summer home in the Hamptons.
Auto lenders: Auto scores, on the other hand, focus on "deal characteristics" in much the same way the mortgage scores do, David Shellenberger, product manager at Fair, Isaac and Co., says. They take into account things such as the amount a customer puts down, for example, as well as a borrower's debt-to-income ratio, length of time at one job and the like. As with credit card lending, information about past performance on similar types of loans is weighted, so a missed Nissan payment might be more important than an overdue Visa bill."